Dr. Fauci was appointed Director of NIAID in 1984 and in that position has served as a relentless crusader for some of humanity’s most virulent medical threats. He has advised six Presidents on both HIV/AIDS and many other domestic and global health issues. He oversees an extensive research portfolio of basic and applied research to prevent, diagnose, and treat established infectious diseases such HIV/AIDS, respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis and malaria as well as emerging diseases such as Ebola, Zika and now, COVID-19. He also supports research on transplantation and immune-related illnesses, including autoimmune disorders, asthma and allergies. He was one of the principal architects of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), a program that has saved millions of lives throughout the developing world. He has also made seminal contributions to the understanding of how HIV destroys the body's defenses and to developing treatments that enable people with HIV to live long and active lives. Today Fauci serves as the country’s trusted leader on all issues related to the current pandemic, delivering information to the American public in a clear and unequivocal manner. Dr. Fauci is also the longtime chief of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, having made many contributions to basic and clinical research on the pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated and infectious diseases. He helped pioneer the field of human immunoregulation by making important basic scientific observations that underpin the current understanding of the regulation of the human immune response. Dr. Fauci is widely recognized for delineating the precise ways that immunosuppressive agents modulate the human immune response. He has developed effective therapies for formerly fatal inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. A 2019 analysis of Google Scholar citations, Dr. Fauci ranked as the 41st most highly cited researcher of all time. Dr. Fauci has delivered major lectures all over the world and is the recipient of numerous prestigious awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the National Medal of Science, the George M. Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians, and the Mary Woodard Lasker Award for Public Service, among others. He has received 45 honorary doctoral degrees from universities in the United States and abroad. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society, as well as many other professional societies. He serves on the editorial boards of many scientific journals; as an editor of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine; and as author, coauthor, or editor of more than 1,300 scientific publications, including several textbooks.